Principles of Statistical Analysis

Examination analyses take place on two levels.

The first level is that of the entire test. The entire group of items goes into making up the test as a whole, and the performance of the group of items is inspected to find out how well the test is functioning for its intended purpose.

The second level is that of the individual item. Each item has peculiar characteristics that either help it to function properly or assist in its dysfunction. Examinees are given full credit for those items viewed as dysfunctional so as not to negatively or unfairly affect the examinee's test score. During statistical review and item construction, these same characteristics are investigated with an eye to make better, functional items.